The island of Kythera (Kithera, Cerigo) with an area of 282 sq Km and a current poulation of around 3,500, is located in the Mediterranean Sea 14 nautical miles off Kavo Maleas on the south-eastern most tip of the Peloponnese between Crete and Peloponesse, in the Ionian Islands group. Mostly rocky with many streams, it produces wine, goat cheese, olives, corn, and flax. On the south shore is Kithira (1971 pop. 349), the chief village, formerly called Kapsali. Ancient Kithira was a center of the cult of Aphrodite. The island passed from Britton to Greece in 1864.

Cretes, Phoenicians, Hellenes, Romans, Byzantines, Venetians, French, British, all took part in the creation of the island's tradition, which balances the hellenic tradition with the western influence in a harmonic wholeness. A totality that contains past and present, static living conditions the roughness of nature, precipitated a significant emigration movement seeking better luck in the big cities or even abroad, mostly in Australia.